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al-Andalus History APK

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The description of al-Andalus History

al-Andalus (Arabic: الأندلس‎, trans. al-ʼAndalus; Spanish: al-Ándalus; Portuguese: al-Ândalus; Aragonese: al-Andalus; Catalan: al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus or Wandalus), also known as Muslim Spain or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim cultural domain and territory occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal. At its greatest geographical extent in the eighth century, southern France—Septimania—was briefly under its control. The name more generally describes parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims (given the generic name of Moors) at various times between 711 and 1492, though the boundaries changed constantly as the Christian Reconquista progressed.

Following the Muslim conquest of Hispania, Al-Andalus, then at its greatest extent, was divided into five administrative units, corresponding roughly to modern Andalusia, Portugal and Galicia, Castile and León, Navarre, Aragon, the County of Barcelona, and Septimania. As a political domain, it successively constituted a province of the Umayyad Caliphate, initiated by the Caliph Al-Walid I (711–750); the Emirate of Córdoba (c. 750–929); the Caliphate of Córdoba (929–1031); and the Caliphate of Córdoba's taifa (successor) kingdoms. Rule under these kingdoms saw a rise in cultural exchange and cooperation between Muslims and Christians, with Christians and Jews considered as second-class citizens who paid a special tax, Jizya, to the state which provided internal autonomy and offered certain protection by Muslim rulers. Under the Caliphate of Córdoba, Al-Andalus was a beacon of learning, and the city of Córdoba became one of the leading cultural and economic centres in Europe and throughout the Mediterranean Basin and the Islamic world. A number of achievements that advanced Islamic and Western science came from Al-Andalus including major advances in trigonometry (Geber), astronomy (Arzachel), surgery (Abulcasis), pharmacology (Avenzoar), and other fields. Al-Andalus became a major educational center for Europe and the lands around the Mediterranean Sea as well as a conduit for culture and science between the Islamic and Christian worlds.

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-Have 7 avalaible language English,Arab,Indon,Malay,French,Benggali,Russia and Turkish

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al-Andalus History APK Version History
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al-Andalus History 1.3 for Android 2.3.2+ APK Download

Version: 1.3 (4) for Android 2.3.2+ (Gingerbread, API 9)

Update on: 2016-01-17

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APK File SHA1: 8064867b85a1b48faba07497b7fffc2f005541d5

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al-Andalus History 1.2 for Android 2.3.2+ APK Download

Version: 1.2 (3) for Android 2.3.2+ (Gingerbread, API 9)

Update on: 2016-01-13

Signature: 460418e12d9a8514292ee9dcaa3af9a8fe00523c al-Andalus History 1.2(3) apk safe verified

APK File SHA1: 6d9f6fbb9e4af0cbbda61400828a5c5c75cf866f

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al-Andalus History 1.1 for Android 2.3.2+ APK Download

Version: 1.1 (2) for Android 2.3.2+ (Gingerbread, API 9)

Update on: 2015-10-15

Signature: 460418e12d9a8514292ee9dcaa3af9a8fe00523c al-Andalus History 1.1(2) apk safe verified

APK File SHA1: 4bc06729b31e311ffa1dac2c47451d2f34a1def1

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