The Constitution was drafted by the Second Constituent Assembly following the failure of the First Constituent Assembly to produce a constitution in its mandated period. The constitution was endorsed by 90% of the total lawmakers. Out of 598 CA members, 507 voted in favor of the constitution while 25 voted against and 66 members of the Constituent Assembly mainly representing political parties based in Terai boycotted the final debates on the constitution as a protest against states delimitation and inclusion of minorities and Madhesi population in the national and public life.
Basic features of the Constitution:
The constitution is largely written in gender neutral term. Some of the important aspects of the constitution include the following:
--The Constitution has restructured the Nation into a federal republic. The Constitution has divided the nation into seven states and finalized the march of the Nation towards republicanism from constitutional monarchy and federalism from unitary system.
--Bicameral parliamentary system has been created with two houses at the Center and unicameral parliamentary system in each state.
--Mixed electoral system has been opted for the elections of the lower house at the Center with both first past the post election system and proportional election system are used to elect members of the lower house.
--Rights of gender and sexual minorities are protected by the new constitution with provisions of special laws to protect, empower and develop minority groups as well as allowing them to get citizenship in their chosen gender.
--Recognizing the rights of women, the constitution of Nepal explicitly states that “women shall have equal ancestral right without any gender-based discrimination.”
--Nepal also has continued to abolish the death penalty. Nepal had abolished death penalty in 1990 after the promulgation of the Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal 1990.
--The Constitution defines wide range human rights as fundamental rights.